Golf calculators

Glossary

A golf glossary has lots of jargon. The terms needed to use our golf calculators (and a little bit more) are grouped in five categories and listed below in alphabetical order.

To find a sought word:
– use any search function (e.g. Ctrl+F),
– select desired range in the Index (below)
– or just scroll down.

 

Index

Abbreviations & Symbols:
A-Z
Handicap & Score:
A-C  D-F  G-H  I-Q  R-Z
Clubs:
A-B  C-F  G-L  M-R  S-Z
Course:
A-C  D-F  G-N  O-P  R-Z
Shots and ball flight:
A-Z

 

Abbreviations, akronyms and symbols

 

3W – Wood no 3 (5W, 7W etc. respectively)

 

4H – Hybrid no 4 (5H, 6H etc. respectively)

 

5I – Iron no 5 (6I, 7I etc. respectively)

 

AGC – Abnormal Ground Conditions

 

AS, A/S – All Square

 

AW – Approach Wedge

 

BBGM – Bottom of Bore to Ground line Measurement

 

CBA – Computed Buffer Adjustment

 

CG – Center of Gravity

 

COR – Coefficient of Restitution

 

CR – Course Rating

 

DW – Dual Wedge

 

DZ – Dropping Zone

 

E – Even Par

 

EDS – Extra Day Score

 

EGA – European Golf Association

 

ESA – Environmentally Sensitive Area

 

GIR – Green in Regulation

 

GUR – Ground Under Repair

 

GW – Gap Wedge

 

HCP, HCAP, HNCP – Handicap

 

LW – Lob Wedge

 

MOI – Moment of Inertia

 

NBP – Natural Bending Position

 

NC – No Card

 

NR – No Return

 

NS – No Show

 

OB, OOB – Out of Bounds

 

PW – Pitching Wedge

 

R & A – Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews

 

SI – Stroke Index

 

SR – Slope Rating

 

STB – Stableford

 

SW – Sand Wedge or Swingweight

 

USGA – United States Golf Association

 

WD – Withdrawn

 

WTF – Wrist to Floor

 

 

 

Handicap and score

1 up (2 up, 3 up etc.)
A situation during Match Play when a side (player or team) is leading by the specified number of holes. 1 up means that the side has won 1 hole more than the opponent, 2 up means 2 holes etc.
As a final score it means that the match went the full 18 holes² and the winner has won 1 hole more than the opponent.

 

2&1 (3&1, 3&2 etc)
A final score in Match Play when a winner won before reaching the 18th hole². The first number specifies the number of holes by which the winner led, and the second number specifies how many holes left to be played when the match ended.
5&4 means the winner was 5 holes ahead with 4 holes to play – the match ended after 14th hole.

 

2-Person Best Ball see Four Ball

 

Ace see Hole in One

 

Albatross
A score of 3 strokes under par on a hole². Other name: Double Eagle.

 

All Square (A/S)
A situation during Match Play when opposing sides (players or teams) have an equal number of points or holes² in their favour.

 

Alternate Shot see Foursome

 

Ambrose
A format of golf competition that is a variation of Scramble. In Ambrose the adjusted handicap of a team is calculated by dividing the total of all handicaps of a team by two times the number of players in a team. An adjusted handicap for 2-person team is ¼ of the combined handicap, for 3-person team 1/6 and for a 4-person team 1/8 of the combined handicap of all team members.

 

American Foursome see Chapman

 

Best Ball (Best-Ball)
A format of golf competition of teams, comprised of two, three or four players (partners). Each player on the team plays his (or her) own ball throughout the round. At the conclusion of each hole², the best score among the partners on each team is that team’s score. Best Ball is usually played as Stroke Play, but it can be played as Match Play, when a single player compete against a 2- or 3-person team playing their best ball.

 

Best Nines see Nassau

 

Better Ball see Four Ball

 

Bingo Bango Bongo (Bingle Bangle Bungle)
A bet format played that can be played by two, three or four players in one group. On each hole² three types of achievements are rewarded with one point. The first point (bingo) goes to the player who first get his ball on the green. The second point (bango) goes to the player whose ball is closest to the hole¹ after all balls have landed on the green. The third point (bongo) goes to the player who first puts the ball in the hole. The player with the highest total number of points wins the competition or the wager.

“The first” means the ball which landed on the green or in the hole earlier than all other balls, the number of strokes doesn’t matter at all. So it is important to play in the proper order in this game. The player furthest from the hole shoots first and the player with lowest score on a hole has honor on the next tee (important on par-3 holes).

 

Birdie
A score of 1 stroke under par on a hole².

 

Bogey
A score of 1 stroke over par on a hole².

 

Bogey Competition
A scoring system of Stroke Play in which the sides (players or teams) award points on each hole². The points are awarded on either a net or gross basis in relation to the bogey at each hole: 1 point for a score lower than bogey, 0 for a bogey and -1 point for a score higher than bogey. The side with the highest total number of points wins.

 

Bogey golfer
A player who can play to the bogey from any set of tees. Bogey golfer has an EGA Handicap of approximately 20.

 

Bogey Rating
The USGA designation that indicates the evaluation of the playing difficulty of a course for bogey golfers under normal course and weather conditions. Expressed as strokes taken to one decimal place, and is based on the extent to which yardage and other obstacles can affect the scoring ability of a bogey golfer.

 

Buffer Zone
The range of returned Stableford scores, within which the player’s EGA Handicap remains unchanged.
see the table …

 

Canadian Foursome see Greensome

 

Captain’s Choice see Texas Scramble

 

CBA see Computed Buffer Adjustment

 

Chapman
A format of golf competition in which two teams, comprised of two players (partners) each, compete against each other. Both partners hit tee shots, swap positions and hit the second stroke (partners hit the teammate’s ball). Then they select which ball they prefer (teams sometimes choose the better ball based on who will get to hit the third). The player whose ball was not selected, plays the third stroke and they play alternate strokes for the rest of the hole² as in Foursome. Penalty strokes do not affect the order of play. Chapman can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play. Other names: Pinehurst, American Foursome.

 

Computed Buffer Adjustment (CBA)
An additional adjustment factor to account for other than normal playing conditions. It means shifting the buffer zone up or down by the number of points. This has the effect of moving the player’s tolerance zone up or down. Possible CBA values are: +1, 0, -1, -2 or -2&RO (Reduction Only).

 

Concede
A situation during Match Play when a side (player or team) acknowledges that it doesn’t have a likely chance of winning the hole² or match and allowing the opponent side the privilege of not having to complete a putt, hole-out or finish the match.

 

Course Rating (CR)
The USGA evaluation of the playing difficulty of a course for scratch golfer under normal course and weather conditions. It is expressed as strokes taken to one decimal place, and is based on yardage and other obstacles to the extent that they affect the scoring ability of a scratch golfer.

 

CR see Course Rating

 

Criers and Whiners see No Alibis

 

Do-Over see Mulligan

 

Double Bogey
A score of 2 strokes over par on a hole².

 

Double Eagle see Albatross

 

Dormie
A situation during Match Play when a side (player or team) is leading by the same number of holes² remaining. So if they are one up with one hole left to play then the match is dormie.

 

Drive see Tee Shot

 

Eagle
A score of 2 strokes under par on a hole².

 

EDS see Extra Day Score

 

EGA Handicap
The EGA’s designation of the relative golfing ability of a player, on a course of standard relative playing difficulty.
read more about handicap …

 

Even Par
A score equal to the par of the course.

 

Extra Day Score (EDS)
A Stableford score returned in qualifying round, other than in a competition.

 

Fellow-competitor
Any person with whom the player (competitor) plays.

 

Flags
A format of golf competition played as Stroke Play in which each side (player or team) gets a  small flag and an allotment of strokes. The number of strokes is usually calculated as par plus a portion (1/2, 2/3 or 3/4) of the side’s handicap allowance. The competitors play the course until their strokes run out and they place flags at the point at which their balls finally land. The side which stakes its flag the farthest around the course wins the competition.

 

Foursome
A format of golf competition in which two teams, comprised of two players (partners) each, compete against each other. Each team shares one ball, which players hit alternately. The first player tees off, the second player hits the second stroke, the first player hits the third stroke, and so on until the ball is holed. Penalty strokes do not affect the order of play. Players alternate hit tee shots, so the first player tees off on the odd numbered holes², the second player on the even holes. Foursome can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play. Other names: Alternate Shot, Scotch Doubles.

 

Four Ball (Four-Ball)
A format of golf competition in which two teams, comprised of two players (partners) each, compete against each other. All four players play their own ball throughout the round. At the conclusion of each hole², the lower of the scores among the two partners is recorded as the team score for that hole. Four Ball can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play. Other names: Better Ball, 2-Person Best Ball.

 

Free drop see Relief

 

Gimme
In a Match Play situation a putt that has one side has conceded to an opponent side. Usually very short putts are conceded as a sporting gesture and as recognition that the side would have holed the putt.
Not allowed in Stroke Play qualifying rounds. Used in casual Stroke Play rounds.
There are no rules about gimmies as to what is an acceptable length. It is considered rude to request a gimme. It is completely up to the discretion of the opponent however, and he is perfectly entitled to never give a gimme.

 

Good- good
A situation during Match Play when a side A offers to concede its opponent’s (side B’s) putt if side B reciprocates by conceding side A’s own putt. Simply saying it means: “I’ll give you your putt if you give me mine” and the opponent agrees.

 

Greensome
A format of golf competition in which two teams, comprised of two players (partners) each, compete against each other. Both partners hit tee shots and they select which ball they prefer. The player whose ball was not selected, then plays the second stroke and they play alternate strokes for the rest of the hole² as in Foursome. Penalty strokes do not affect the order of play. Greensome can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play. Other name: Canadian Foursome.

 

Green in Regulation (GIR)
To hit the ball onto the green within a specified number of shots. The GIR changes depending on the par of the hole². For a par 3 it is 1, for a par 4 it is 2 and for a par 5 it is 3. It is used as a statistic to show the accuracy of a golfer’s approach shots.

 

Gross Score
The total number of strokes taken on a hole² or during a round of golf plus any penalty strokes.

 

Gruesome
A format of golf competition in which two teams, comprised of two players (partners) each, compete against each other. Both partners hit tee shots and (unlike Greensome) their opponents select which ball they should play. The player whose ball was not selected, then plays the second stroke and they play alternate strokes for the rest of the hole² as in Foursome. Penalty strokes do not affect the order of play. This format is a variation of Greensome and can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play.

 

Halve a Hole / a Match
A situation during Match Play when a hole or match is tied.

 

Handicap
A scoring system that takes into account the ability of the golfer before they are awarded a score. It is used so that golfers of different abilities can compete together. The lower a handicap is, the better the golfer is.
read more about handicap …

 

Handicap Allowance
The number of handicap strokes a player receives in a handicap competition. It is the percentage of the playing handicap determined by the Committee.

 

Handicap Category
EGA Handicaps
are grouped within the 6 handicap categories. 1st category contains the lowest handicaps, while 6th category contains the highest ones.
see the table …

 

Handicap Stroke
A stroke that a player is entitled to deduct from his gross score. A player with a “plus” playing handicap adds strokes to his gross score.

 

Honor
The privilege of playing first from the teeing ground. On the first hole², honor can be determined by the tournament’s draw or by any other way (lowest handicap value, the player who is ready first to tee off first, etc.). Beginning on the second tee, the player with the best score on the preceding hole gets honors on the next tee. In Match Play it is the hole’s winner, in Stroke Play the player with lowest actual score on the hole. If players halved the hole or shoot the same score on the hole they continue to tee off in the same order on the next hole.

 

Initial EGA Handicap
The first EGA handicap attained to beginners, who never had EGA handicap before. The Initial EGA Handicap is calculated on the basis of the Stableford score returned after qualifying round (9 or 18 holes).

 

Level Par
A score that matches par.

 

Low Handicapper
A golfer with a handicap in single figures, i.e. less than 10.

 

Marker
A person who is appointed to record (mark down) a player’s score in stroke play. Usually he is a fellow-competitor. It is the player’s responsibility to make sure the scores written down by the marker on the scorecard are correct before signing it. The marker is not a referee.

 

Match Play
A form of competition and scoring system in which two sides (players or teams) play every hole² as a separate contest against each other. The party with the lower score (strokes and penalty strokes) wins the hole, regardless of how many strokes he won the hole by. Opponents compete to win individual holes, and the side who wins more holes than the other wins the match. The gross or net scores on holes can be applied.
read more about Match Play …

 

Medal Play see Stroke Play

 

Mulligan
The custom of hitting a second ball from the tee after a poor first shot without penalty stroke. Not allowed in qualifying round. Other name Do-Over.

 

Nassau
A format of golf competition and a bet format in which sides (players or teams) compete in three tournaments or wagers in one: the front nine, the back nine and the 18-hole round. Each of these three parts are scored as a separate competitions. The sides with the best score on the front nine, on the back nine and over the full 18-hole round win three separate prizes (or wagers). Nassau can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play. Any type of scoring is possible: individual or team, Foursome, Four Ball, Scramble, Greensome etc. Other name: Best Nines.

 

Net Score
The score a player gets after subtracting his handicap strokes from his gross score.

 

No Alibis
A golf competition played as Stroke Play in which instead of using handicaps in the normal fashion, mulligans can be used from any point on the course. The players’ handicaps are converted into free strokes that are used during a round. The game can be played with full handicaps, 3/4 or 2/3 of the handicaps. Everyone then plays off scratch and the lowest score wins. Usually there are additional conditions: the first tee shot may not be replayed, the second shot must be used when replaying (player can’t decide to play his first ball) and no shot can be replayed twice. Other names: Wipe Out, Play It Again Sam, Criers and Whiners.

 

No Card (NC)
A status shown on the tournament scoreboard if the player completed a round and did not hand in a scorecard.

 

No Return (NR)
Any round that is not completed and/or for which no scorecard is returned, and additionally, in Stroke Play only, when no score is returned for one or more holes².

 

No Show (NS)
A status shown on the tournament scoreboard if the player did not show up to the round.

 

Par
A number of strokes a good player is expected to make on a hole². Pars range from 3 to 5 normally, although some courses have par 6 holes.

 

Par Competition
A scoring system of Stroke Play in which the sides (players or teams) award points on each hole². The points are awarded on either a net or gross basis in relation to the par at each hole: 1 point for a score lower than the par, 0 for a par and -1 point for a score higher than the par. The side with the highest total number of points wins. Other name: V-Par.
see the table …

 

Par of a Course
The sum of the pars of all the played holes² on a course. It is the number of strokes the good golfer is expected to complete all the holes. Most full-size golf courses range from pars of 69 to 74. Par 70, 71 and 72 courses are most common.

 

Patsome
A format of golf competition that is a combination of three other formats. The teams, comprised of two players (partners) each play the first six holes in Four Ball, the next six in Greensome and the last six in Foursome format.

 

Penalty Stroke
An additional stroke or strokes added to a player’s score for an infraction of the rules. In Match Play the penalty is loss of the hole² except for penalties assessed for relief from a penalty area or a lost ball.

 

Pinehurst see Chapman

 

Play It Again Sam see No Alibis

 

Playing Handicap
The number of handicap strokes a player receives for a specific set of tees at the course being played. Calculated from the EGA Handicap and expressed as a whole number.

 

Portuguese Caddy
A golf competition played in any format in which players are allowed to move their balls by kicking it at any point on the course without penalty. Usually the number of allowed kicks relates to the players’ handicaps (full, 3/4, 2/3 or 1/2 of the handicap). Sometimes the Committee specifies a fixed number of kicks allowed, the same for all players. Portuguese Caddy can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play.

 

Qualifying Round
Any round in a competition or a round played with the intention to return an EDS. Qualifying round have to be played with full handicap allowance (100%) and marked by an approved marker.

 

Referee
A person who is appointed by the Committee to decide questions of fact and apply the rules.

 

Relief
The action of lifting the ball from the present situation and dropping it under the Rules without penalty (e.g. from casual water, ground under repair etc.). Other name: free drop

 

Round
The completion of nine or eighteen (or nine) holes² on a golf course.

 

Sandbagger
Golfer who maintains artificially high handicap so he can achieve better net score in handicap competitions.

 

Scorecard
A card on which the score of a round is recorded. The scorecard enables to identify players and contains the lengths, the pars and the stroke indexes of individual holes².
see the example …

 

Scotch Doubles see Foursome

 

Scotch Foursome
The variation of the regular Foursome. The only difference is that the alternate shot is carried on from hole² to hole. If the first partner holes out on the green then the second partner tees off on the next hole and so on throughout the round.

 

Scramble
A format of golf competition of teams, comprised of two, three or four players (partners). Each player on the team plays his (or her) own ball throughout the round. All partners hit tee shots, they select which ball they prefer, and the players whose balls were not selected pick up their balls and move them to that location. All partners then play their second stroke from that spot and repeat procedure until any ball is holed in. Usually the lifted balls are placed within one scorecard’s width or one putter head of the selected position. In regular Scramble (unlike Texas Scramble) there are no driving requirements – one player might have his tee shot selected on every hole. Scramble can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play.

 

Scratch
A golfer who can play par from any set of tees. Scratch golfer has an EGA Handicap of 0,0 or lower.

 

Shot see Stroke

 

Side
A player, or two or more players who are partners. In Match Play, each member of the opposing side is an opponent. In Stroke Play, members of all sides are competitors and members of different sides playing together are fellow-competitors.

 

Single
The classic format of golf competition of single players, that can be played off scratch or full handicap difference as Match Play or Stroke Play.

 

Skins
A bet format played as Match Play in which each hole² is worth a given amount of points or money. A wager (a skin) is made on each hole. The skin is awarded to the player who wins the hole outright. If the best score for the hole is achieved by more than one player the skin is added to the wager of the next hole. In the event that two or more golfers halve the final hole, a playoff begins until one golfer wins a hole outright.

 

Slope Rating (SR)
The USGA designation that indicates the relative playing difficulty of a course for players who are not scratch golfers. It is computed from the difference between the bogey rating and the course rating. A golf course of standard relative playing difficulty has a SR of 113.

 

SR see Slope Rating

 

Stableford
A scoring system of Stroke Play in which the sides (players or teams) award points (Stableford points) on each hole². The points are awarded on either a net or gross basis in relation to the par at each hole: 1 point for a bogey, 2 for a par, 3 for a birdie, 4 for an eagle and 5 for an albatross. The side with the highest total number of points wins.
see the table …

 

String (Stringball)
A format of golf competition played as Stroke Play in which each side (player or team) gets a length of string instead of handicap strokes. The length of the string depends on the side’s handicap, usually 12 or 20 inches per handicap point. Competitors can use the string to remove their balls from penalty areas, get it out of a difficult lie or to hole out. The players at any point in the round can move the ball without penalty to any new position and cut off the length of string equal to the distance they away from where the ball had previously come to rest. After moving the ball from its position, that length of string is no longer available. Such moving procedure can be repeated until the string is gone.

 

Stroke
The forward movement (swing) of the club made by a golfer who is trying to strike the ball. The swing completed with the intention of hitting the ball counts as a stroke regardless of whether the ball is struck or missed.

 

Stroke Index (SI)
The relative difficulty rating for the hole². Each course ranks its holes² in the order from which is the most difficult (SI = 1) to easiest (SI = 18).
see the example …

 

Stroke Play
A form of competition and scoring system in which the sides (players or teams) play the nominated amount (1 – 4) of rounds. Each stroke the side takes and penalty strokes are tallied and makes up its final score. The side with the lowest total score (gross or net) wins. Other name: Medal Play.
read more about Stroke Play …

 

Square see All Square

 

Tap In
A situation on the green, when the ball is very close to the hole¹ and the player chooses to putt it promptly instead of lifting it. It does not require the permission of the other players.

 

Texas Scramble
A format of golf competition of teams, comprised of two, three or four players (partners). Each player on the team plays his (or her) own ball throughout the round. All partners hit tee shots, they select which ball they prefer, and the players whose balls were not selected pick up their balls and move them to that location. All partners then play their second strokes from that spot and repeat procedure until any ball is holed in. Usually the lifted balls are placed within one scorecard’s width or one putter head of the selected position. In Texas Scramble (unlike regular Scramble) at least the appointed number (usually 4 or 6) drives of each player must be used during the round. Texas Scramble can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play. Other name: Captain’s Choice.

 

Three Ball (Three-Ball)
A format of Match Play competition in which three players play alone, each playing his (or her) own ball. Each member of the group plays individual matches against the other two members, so he (or she) plays two separate matches in one round of golf.

 

Threesome
A format of golf competition in which one golfer competes against a team of two golfers. The single player plays his own ball, the team players hit alternately. The first player of the team tees off, the second player hits the second stroke, the first player hits the third stroke, and so on until the ball is holed. Penalty strokes do not affect the order of play. Team members plays alternate tee shots, so the first player tees off on the odd numbered holes², the second player on the even holes. Threesome can be played as Match Play or Stroke Play.

 

Triple Bogey
A score of 3 strokes over par on a hole².

 

V-Par see Par Competition

 

Wipe Out see No Alibis

 

Withdrawn (WD)
A status shown on the tournament scoreboard if a player is voluntarily withdrawn from a competition after starting it.

 

 

Clubs and Components

 

Angle of Attack
The angle at which the club impacts the ball. It is formed between the vertical plane and center of the shaft when the face strikes the ball. The Angle of Attack affect ball trajectory, backspin and distance of the shot.
see the picture …

 

Approach Wedge (AW)
wedge designed to fill the gap in loft (and distance of a shot) between the pitching wedge and the sand wedge. Usually with the loft of 52 to 54 degrees. Other names: Attack Wedge, Dual Wedge, Gap Wedge.

 

Attack Wedge see Approach Wedge

 

Back
Back surface of the club head, opposite the face.
see the picture…

 

Back Edge see Trailing Edge

 

Back Weighting
The process of adding weight to the back of a head to move the center of gravity rearward, further from the face.

 

Baffy
Older name of the #5 wood.

 

Balance Point
The point where a weight of shaft or club is evenly distributed in both directions when rested on a single point.
see the picture …

 

BBGM
The abbreviation for the “Bottom of Bore to Ground line Measurement”. In other words it is the distance from the bottom of the hosel bore to the point where the shaft would meets the ground, when the club is in the address position. BBGM could be calculated by substracting the hosel depth  from the hosel length.
see the picture…

 

Blade¹
A design of a putter with a narrow club head from the face to the back.
see the picture…

 

Blade²
A design of an iron head with the solid, relatively smooth back of the club head and equal weight distribution throughout the head. Designed for experienced golfers as they are very unforgiving, but provide increased feel and feedback. Blade heads are sometimes called muscle back heads but they are usually thinner that classic muscle back ones.
see the picture…

 

Blade³
The casual name of a face.

 

Blank Shaft see Raw Shaft

 

Blind Bore
A hosel bore in which the installed shaft does not go all the way through the sole of the head.
see the picture …

 

Bore-through
A hosel bore which goes all the way through the club head. The tip of the shaft is then visible on the sole of the club.

 

Bore Type
The term used to describe how far a shaft penetrates into a hosel. The two basic types are: blind bore and bore-through.

 

Bounce
The term referred to the type of sole where the trailing edge of the sole is lower than the leading edge. It keeps clubs from digging too deep in the sand or getting stopped by tall grass.
read more about bounce …
see the picture …

 

Bounce Angle
The angle formed by the plane of leading and trailing edges and the ground plane. Expressed in degrees. Typical bounce angles range from 6 to 15 degrees.
read more about bounce …
see the picture…

 

Brassie
Older name of the #2 wood.

 

Box Grooves see U Grooves

 

Build-Up Tape
Masking tape applied to the butt end of the shaft under the grip to increase the grip size. A single layer of masking tape (.003-.004″ thick) will increase grip size approximately 1/128″.
see the picture …

 

Bulge
The curvature of the face of a driver or fairway wood from heel to toe. Bulge helps give corrective sidespin to shots hit on the toe or heel of the wood face (Magnus effect).
see the picture…

 

Butt
The grip (the thickest) end of the shaft.
see the picture …

 

Butt Cap see Grip Cap

 

Butt Diameter
The outside diameter of the larger end of a shaft where the grip is to be installed. Typically expressed in thousandths of an inch (i.e. .600″ or .580″).
see the picture …

 

Butt Size see Butt Diameter

 

Butt Trimming
The process of preparing the butt end of the shaft by cutting it at the desired point for correct length and swingweight. Butt trimming allows to shorten a shaft without substantially changing the its effective flex.

 

Butt Weight
A plug (usually lead) that is placed into the butt end of a shaft.

 

Butt Weighting see Counter Balance

 

Camber
The curvature of the sole of a club. A sole can be cambered (rounded) side to side (from toe to heel), or front to back (from leading edge to trailing edge), or both.
see the picture…

 

Cavity Back
A design of an iron head with a portion of the back of the head is hollowed out and the weight is distributed toward the perimeter of the head. Cavity back irons are easily identified by their recessed area on the back of the head. The cavity-back irons are far more forgiving than blades² or muscle back models.
see the picture …

 

Center of Gravity (CG)
The point in a club, a shaft, or a club head where all of the points of balance intersect. Other name: Center of Mass.
see the picture …

 

Center of Mass see Center of Gravity

 

Chipper (Chipping Iron)
An iron used to chip the ball onto the green. Usually with the loft of 28 to 43 degrees. Mostly used by beginner to intermediate golfers.

 

Cleek
Older name of the #4 wood.

 

Club
The tool designed to strike the golf ball. A club has three main components: the head, the shaft and the grip. There are few categories of clubs: woods, hybrids, irons, wedges and putters.
read more about golf club …
see the picture …

 

Club Fitting
The adjustments made to a golf club to take into account a golfers height, swing speed and swing characteristics.

 

Club Face (Clubface) see Face

 

Club Head (Clubhead) see Head

 

Club Length see Length

 

Club Lie see Lie

 

Club Loft see Loft

 

Coefficient of Restitution (COR)
The amount of rebound provided by a club face. A COR of 1.00 would mean that the ball would rebound at the same speed it impacted the club face. The USGA has limited the amount of COR a club face can have to .83.

 

Component
Any part used to assemble a golf club. The three primary components of a golf club are the head, shaft and grip. Other components include ferrule, labels, tape, and epoxy.
see the picture …

 

Core
Inside diameter of a grip as measured at its mouth.

 

Core Size
Size of a grip’s core. Usually labeled inside the mouth of the grip. For example, M60R indicates a men’s grip of .600” core size that produces a standard size grip when installed on a .600” shaft butt.
see the picture…

 

Counter Balance
The process of adding weight in the butt end of a shaft to reduce swingweight or achieve a specific feel. It increases the total weight of the club and shifts the center of gravity of the club closer to the grip.

 

Crown
The top of a head of a driver, fairway wood or hybrid wood. It is part of a head the golfer sees at address.
see the picture…

 

Cut Shaft
The trimmed shaft that is ready for installation into the club.

 

Deep Bore
A hosel bore in which the depth exceeds average depth.
see the picture…

 

Deep Face
A club head with a face height greater than average. This is a relative measure and no specific dimension is applied to this term, but it usually means a higher center of gravity that makes it easier to hit the ball on a lower trajectory.

 

Digger Sole see Scoop Sole

 

Double Sided Tape see Grip Tape

 

Dowel see Shaft Extension

 

Driver
The longest club designed to hit the ball the farthest distance usually for the first shot from a tee on a par 4 or par 5 hole. Drivers commonly have lofts between 7 and 12 degrees.
see the picture …

 

Driving Iron
The iron club with little loft, usually the #1 iron.

 

Dual Wedge (DW) see Approach Wedge

 

Dynamic Lie see Effective Lie

 

Dynamic Loft see Effective Loft

 

Effective Bounce
The actual bounce angle at impact. Determined by the designed (nominal) bounce angle and the angle of attack.
see the picture…

 

Effective Lie
The actual lie angle at impact. Determined by the designed (nominal) lie angle, dynamic shaft bending and lie angle changes induced by golfer.

 

Effective Loft
The actual loft angle at impact. Determined by the designed (nominal) loft angle, the face angle, the lie and the position of the hands relative to the ball at impact (angle of attack).

 

End Cap see Grip Cap

 

Epoxy
The adhesive used to connect the shaft to the head.

 

Extension see Shaft Extension

 

Face
The part of the club head which strikes (comes into direct contact) the golf ball. Other names: Club Face, Clubface.
see the picture…
 

Face Angle
The orientation of the club face relative to the intended line of ball flight. For right-handed golfer a square face angle aligns directly at the target, an open face aligns to the right, a closed face aligns left.

 

Face Height
The distance from the sole to the crown at mid face (Hitting Area).
see the picture…

 

Face Length see Face Width

 

Face Width
The distance from the heel to the toe on the club face which comes into direct contact with the ball. Other names: Face Length, Hitting Area.
see the picture…

 

Ferrule
Decorative trim ring, directly on top of the hosel that covers the connection between the head and the shaft. Originally just cosmetic but can also work to protect graphite shafts and club integrity.
see the picture …

 

Flange
The part of a putter head that protrudes out from its back, which extends along the ground from the leading edge to the rear of the head.
see the picture…

 

Flat Lie
A relatively shallow or more horizontal lie angle, flatter than specification.
see the picture…

 

Flatstick
A slang term for the putter.

 

Flatter
A club with a flat lie.
see the picture…

 

Flex
The relative bending properties (stiffness) of a golf club shaft as forces are applied to it during the golf swing. Usually identified by a letter.

 

Flex Point see Kick Point

 

Forgiveness
An abstract feature of a club which describes how well a club reduces effects of an off-center hit. The more forgiving club offers the bigger ability to keep the intended trajectory of the ball after a poor contact.

 

Frequency Matching
Process of adjusting the stiffness of the shafts of a set of clubs to match a golfer’s swing speed.

 

Front Edge see Leading Edge

 

Gap Wedge (GW) see Approach Wedge

 

Gear Effect
The effect caused by the convex face of a driver or wood that influences on sidespin imparted to the ball. It tends to cause a ball hit toward the toe or heel side of face center to curve back to the intended target line.

 

Golfclub see Club

 

Gooseneck
A club (putter or iron) that has an extremely big offset.

 

Grind
The special shape of the sole of some wedges that allows to adjust effective bounce and loft by grinding it. Different grind shapes are designed for different purposes. For instance a grind can allow to open the face of the wedge without the leading edge coming off the ground which provides more lofted pitch shots without increasing the club’s bounce.

 

Grip
The top part of the golf club where player places his hands.
read more about grip …
see the picture…

 

Grip Cap
The plastic or rubber cap at the butt end of the grip. Other names: End Cap, Butt Cap.
see the picture…

 

Grip Diameter
Diameter of the grip, that is installed on the shaft, measured at 2 inches down from the edge of the grip cap.
see the picture…

 

Grip Size see Grip Diameter

 

Grip Tape
Tape applied to the shaft to secure the grip to the shaft. It has adhesive on both sides of the tape and may be activated with a solvent or water. Grip tape is available in 2” wide rolls, grip tape strips, or 3/4” wide rolls. Other names: Two-Sided Tape, Double Sided Tape.
see the picture …

 

Grooves
The horizontal indentations cut into the club face which impart backspin to a ball. The grooves grab the ball and impart spin upon it when it is struck with an iron. Grooves on drivers and fairway woods are normally cosmetic. Grooves used to be V-shaped but they changed to U-shaped (square grooves).
see the picture…

 

Head
The most massive part of the club at the bottom end (opposite the grip) of the shaft that actually strikes the ball and transfers all the energy of the swing is to the golf ball.
see the picture…

 

Heel
The side of the head closest to the hosel, where the club head is attached to the shaft.
see the picture…

 

Heel-Toe Weighted
A head design in which weight is distributed toward the heel and toe. It increases the MOI of a head and reduces the effect of mishits.

 

Hitting Area see Face Width

 

Hosel
The part of the head that connects to the shaft. It goes all the way from the heel up to the ferrule. Other name: Neck
see the picture…

 

Hosel Bore
The hollow for the shaft in the hosel part of a club head.
see the picture…

 

Hosel Depth
The distance from the hosel top to the bottom of the hosel bore. Other name: Hosel Bore Depth, Insertion Depth.
see the picture…

 

Hosel Inside Diameter (Hosel ID)
The inside diameter of the hosel. Measured in thousandths of an inch. (0.335″, 0.350″, 0.410″, 0.370″). Other name: Hosel Bore Diameter.
see the picture…

 

Hosel Length
The distance from the hosel top to the point where the shaft would meets the ground, when the club is in the address position.
see the picture…

 

Hybrid, Hybrid Club
A club that combines features of both woods and irons. Hybrid clubs are typically the same length as the long iron they are meant to replace but the head design uses features from woods including wide soles and lower centers of gravity. Hybrid are used instead of the long irons, they are much easier to play and give a player added control on long shots. The hybrid irons have flat face (like irons) while the hybrid woods has face with horizontal bulge and vertical roll¹ (a curved face, like woods). Other names: Rescue, Utility Club, Hybrid Iron, Hybrid Wood.
see the picture …

 

Hybrid Iron see Hybrid Club

 

Hybrid Wood see Hybrid Club

 

Insertion Depth see Hosel Depth

 

Iron
A golf club with a head made of metal and a relatively narrow sole. Usually with the loft between 16 and 44 degrees.  Various lofts allow to hit the golf ball controlled distances.
see the picture …

 

Keel Sole
The sole of a wood that is “V” shaped and designed to lower the club’s center of gravity.

 

Kick Point
The place in the shaft where the most flexing occurs. Lower flex points (closer to the head) tend to make the ball fly higher. Other names: Flex Point, Bend Point.

 

Launch Angle
The vertical angle of the golf ball’s movement relative to the horizon after separation from the club face.

 

Lead
Heavy metal powder or element used as a swingweighting material attached in the shaft or in/on the club head.

 

Leading Edge
The front edge of the face where it meets the sole. Usually set perpendicular to the target when setting up to shot.
see the picture…

 

Length
The distance from one end of the club to the other measured as the distance from the butt to the point where the shaft would meets the ground, when the club is in the address position.
read more about length …
see the picture …

 

Lie
The angle from the shaft to the ground line when the club is in normal playing position. Measured in degrees. Other name: Lie Angle, Club Lie.
read more about lie …
see the picture …

 

Lob Wedge (LW)
A very highly lofted wedge, usually between 59 and 60 degrees (sometimes more), designed for playing high, soft shots from short distances.

 

Loft
The angle of the face relative to a perpendicular line up from the ground at address, when the club is soled flat on the ground. Measured in degrees. More loft creates a higher, shorter shot with more backspin imparted to the ball. Other names: Loft Angle, Club Loft.
read more about loft …
see the picture …

 

Long Irons
The least lofted irons in a set of golf clubs, numbered #2, #3, and #4. Usually with less than 25 degree loft.

 

Low Profile see Shallow Face

 

Mallet
A design of a of putter with the large head and particularly wide from the face to the back of the head.
see the picture…

 

Mashie
Older name of the #5 iron.

 

Mashie Iron
Older name of the #4 iron.

 

Mashie Niblick
Older name of the #7 iron.

 

Masking Tape see Build-up Tape

 

Mid Iron¹
Older name of the #2 iron.

 

Mid Irons²
Today’s irons make up the middle of a set, numbered #5, #6, and #7. Usually range in loft from 25 to 38 degrees. Designed for distance and accuracy on an approach shot onto the green.

 

Mid Mashie
Older name of the #3 iron.

 

Moment of Inertia (MOI)
A measurement of resistance of any object to being put in motion around a defined axis of rotation. Indicates the stability of an object. The higher the MOI of an object, the more force will have to be applied to set that object in a rotational motion.

 

MOI of the Head
Moment of Inertia of the club head around its center of gravity. The head design property that has a bearing on the amount of forgiveness the head offers at impact. The higher the MOI of the head, the less the head will twist in response to an off-center hit, and the less distance will be lost.

 

MOI of the Club
Moment of Inertia of the golf club around its butt. Used in the club set matching process to make all the clubs the same in terms of the amount of force (effort) required by the golfer to swing each club and hit the shot. The right MOI must be identified and custom fit for each golfer.
read more about “Whole club MOI” …

 

Mouth
The opening in the small end of the grip that fits over the shaft during installation. The core size designation can be found imprinted inside of the mouth.
see the picture…

 

Muscle Back
A design of an iron head with a weight strategically placed on the lower half of the head or/and behind the centre of gravity. Used by advanced golfers due to superior feel and workability of the ball and less forgiveness. Muscle back irons are thicker than a blade² irons and almost the opposite of cavity back or perimeter weighted designs.
see the picture…

 

Natural Bending Position (NBP)
The direction of least stiffness of the shaft when rotating a shaft through 360 degrees, due to the directional variation of stiffness of a club shaft.

 

Neck see Hosel

 

Niblick
Older name of the #8 or #9 iron, roughly comparable to today’s wedge.

 

Offset
The distance from the forward side of the hosel to the leading edge. Offset helps a player to align the club face with the target, allows a little extra time for the golfer to square the face and reduce the amount of slice sidespin applied to the ball.
see the picture…

 

Onset (Negative Offset)
The design of a head in which the leading edge of the face is positioned in front of the forward side of the hosel.
see the picture…

 

Overall Weight see Total Weight

 

Oversize Iron
An iron with a face height greater than 43mm and a face width greater than 75 mm.

 

Perimeter Weighted Iron
A design of an iron with the center of gravity of the head centered in the middle although the weight is positioned around the perimeter of the head, thus increasing the sweet spot.
see the picture…

 

Pitching Wedge (PW)
The lowest lofted wedge usually between 44 and 49 degrees. Used to hit a high shot onto the green.

 

Progressive Offset Irons
An iron set with longer irons having more offset and shorter irons having less.

 

Pureing see Spine Alignment

 

Putter
The club used to putt the ball on the green and cause the ball to roll along the ground until it falls into a hole¹.
see the picture…

 

Radius
The gradual curve of the leading edge as you look down at the head in the address position.

 

Raw Shaft
An uncut shaft in its manufactured form, that has not been trimmed nor installed in a clubhead. Other name: Blank Shaft

 

Rescue Club see Hybrid Club

 

Rocker Sole
A cambered sole of club head.

 

Roll¹
The curvature of the face of a driver or fairway wood from sole to crown. Roll helps impart spin to the ball that helps it go straighter.
see the picture…

 

Sand Wedge (SW)
The wedge with the middle most loft, usually between 52 and 56 degrees. This wedge usually has the most bounce so that it can be used out of the sand and deep rough.

 

Scoop Sole
A sole in which leading edge is lower than its trailing edge. Other name: Digger Sole.

 

Scoring
Marking on a club face, designed for decorative or alignment purposes. Usually there are lines, dots, circles and triangles.

 

Shaft
The long, tubular (round in cross section) golf club component that connects the grip and the head. Most golf club shafts are made out of steel or graphite.
see the picture…

 

Shaft Butt see Butt

 

Shaft Extension
A piece of hard material (e. g. steel, aluminum, hard plastic) inserted into the shaft butt to make the shaft/club longer.
see the picture …

 

Shaft Spinning see Spine Alignment

 

Shaft Tip see Tip

 

Shallow Face
A club head with a face height less than average. This is a relative measure, no specific dimension is applied to this term, but it usually means a lower center of gravity that makes it easier to hit the ball on a high trajectory.

 

Short Irons
The irons make up the highest lofted irons in a set, numbered #8 and #9. Usually have a loft of 39 degrees or higher. Designed for maximum accuracy on your approach shot onto the green.

 

Sole
The bottom or underside of the club head that rests on the ground in address position.
see the picture…

 

Sole Camber see Camber

 

Sole Weighted Iron
A design of an iron with the majority of the head weight concentrated near the sole of the club, producing a lower center of gravity and therefore a higher shot.

 

Sole Width
The measure of a sole from the leading edge to the trailing edge. A narrow sole is better from firmer ground; wide soles are helpful in getting the ball airborne from softer ground.
see the picture…

 

Spade Mashie
Older name of the #6 iron.

 

 

Spine
The direction of greatest stiffness of the shaft when rotating a shaft through 360 degrees, due to the directional variation of stiffness of a club shaft.

 

Spine Alignment
The process of locating the spine and NBP on the shaft and then aligning the shaft in the hosel so that the shaft will bend straight forward during the swing. There is a number of alignment methods, but the most popular is to orient the NBP plane towards the target line. Other names: Shaft Spinning, Pureing

 

Spoon
Older name of the #3 wood.

 

Static Weight see Total Weight

 

Square Grooves see U Grooves

 

Sweet Spot
The spot in the club face that delivers the most energy to the ball thus producing the most distance and accuracy. Hitting the ball elsewhere on the face causes a loss of distance and change in direction.
see the picture…

 

Swingweight
The expression of a club’s weight distribution around a fixed fulcrum point. It is not a function of total weight but rather specifies how heavy the club feels to a golfer swinging it. Other names: Swing Weight, Swinging Weight.
read more about swingweight …

 

Third Wedge
A lofted wedge that differs from a pitching wedge or a sand wedge in loft and/or sole characteristics. Could be Approach, Attack, Dual, Lob or other named Wedge.

 

Tip
The head (the thinnest) end of the shaft.
see the picture…

 

Tip Diameter
The outside diameter of a tip end of the shaft. Typically expressed in thousandths of an inch (i.e. .370″ and .355″).

 

Tip Pin see Tip Weight

 

Tipping see Tip Trimming

 

Tip Size see Tip Diameter

 

Tip Stiff
A shaft with a tip stiffer than the rest of the shaft.

 

Tip Trimming
The process of preparing the tip end of a shaft for installation by cutting it at the desired point for correct flex. The cutting point is usually defined by the shaft manufacturer. Other name: Tipping.

 

Tip Weight
A short piece of heavy material (usually lead) that is placed into the tip end of a shaft prior to shaft installation. It increases the swingweight and the total weight of the club. Other name: Tip Pin.

 

Toe
The side of the head farthest from the hosel and shaft.
see the picture…

 

Toe Height
The distance from the sole to the top edge or crown at toe.
see the picture…

 

Top Edge
The edge of the head, running from heel to toe, visible at the top of the club face when golfers looks down at the club at address. Other name: Topline.
see the picture…

 

Torque
Measure of a shaft’s resistance to twisting. More torque means more tendency to twist. Low torque shafts twist less and are designed for stronger players.

 

Total Weight
The weight of the entire assembled club, expressed in ounces or grams.

 

Trailing Edge
The back edge of the sole, where it meets the back side of the club head.
see the picture…

 

 

Trimming
The process of preparing a raw shaft for installation by tip trimming and/or  butt trimming.

 

Tungsten
Heavy metal powder or element used as a swingweighting material attached in the shaft or in/on the club head.

 

Two-Sided Tape see Grip Tape

 

U Grooves
Face grooves pressed, cut, or cast into a rectangular or U shape. More pronounced than V Grooves. Other names: Box Grooves, Square Grooves.
see the picture…

 

Upright Lie
A relatively steep or more vertical lie angle, more upright than the standard specification for that particular head.
see the picture…

 

Upright
A club with a upright lie.
see the picture…

 

Utility Club see Hybrid Club

 

Utility Wedge see Third Wedge

 

Wedge
A club similar to short iron with significant loft mainly for playing shorter, more lofted shots. The amount of loft can vary widely, from a pitching wedge that ranges somewhere between 44 and 49 degrees to a lob wedge that can range from 58 up to 65 degrees. Wedges come in a huge variety of styles, shapes and names (Approach, Attack, Pitching, Sand, Lob, Third, Utility, Gap and other named Wedge), depending on their purpose and manufacturer.
see the picture …

 

Weight see Total Weight

 

Wood
A club with bulbous club head that are used to hit the longest shots.
see the picture…

 

Workability
An abstract feature of a club which describes how well a club allows a player to intentionally manipulate the trajectory of the hit ball (e. g. draw or fade).

 

Wrist to Floor
The distance from a golfer’s wrist to the floor, used in static fit for a club length.
see the picture…
read more about length fitting …

 

Vent Hole
A hole in the grip cap center that allows air to be released during a grip installation.
see the picture…

 

V Grooves
Face grooves pressed, cut, or cast into a V shape.
see the picture…

 

Volume
A numerical indication of the size of a wood head as measured by liquid displacement. Expressed in cubic centimeters (cc).

 

 

Golf course

Abnormal Ground Condition
Poor physical conditions on a golf course: casual water, ground under repair or a hole or the cast from a hole made by a burrowing animal, a reptile or a bird.

 

Apron
An area of grass in front of the putting green where the fairway transitions into the green. It is usually cut to a height about halfway between green and fairway heights.
see the picture …

 

Back Nine
The second 9 holes² (no 10-18) on an 18 hole course. Other names: Inward Nine, In.

 

Ball Mark
A depression (and/or a tear) in the green surface that a ball makes when it hit the ground on its approach shot. Other name: Pitch Mark.
see the picture …

 

Ballmark Repair Tool see Pitchfork

 

Birdie book
An hole-by-hole accurate map for a golf course. It contains all the necessary background information on all the holes, including locations and distances to key points (landing zones, penalty areas, greens etc).

 

Bunker
Depression in the ground filled in with sand or a similar material. Bunker is one of the five areas of the course defined by Rules.
see the picture…

 

Casual Water
Any temporary, visible on the surface accumulation of water on the course, that is not designated a penalty area.

 

Collar
A ring of grass around the putting green that is slightly higher than the grass on the green.
see the picture…

 

Course
The collection of holes². A standard round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, and a “full-sized” golf course contains 18 holes.

 

Cup see Hole¹

 

Divot
A piece of turf and grass that a golf club cuts out of the ground, usually on fairway. Divot refers also to the “divot hole” left where the turf was gouged out.
see the picture …

 

Dogleg
A hole² in which the fairway bends to the left or to the right at some turning point along its length. Dogleg can be par-4 or par-5 hole. The bend can be in the range between 20 and 90 degrees. If a fairway bends twice the hole is called a double dogleg.

 

Dropping, Drop Zone (DZ)
Special areas established on the golf course to drop a ball when proceeding in accordance with other Rules is not feasible or practicable. Dropping zones are provided as a mandatory or an additional relief option to those available under the Rules regarding:
penalty area (most popular case),
abnormal ground conditions and immovable obstruction (sometimes),
– wrong putting green or ball unplayable (rare).
The local rules describe how the zones are marked/identified.
see the picture…

 

Environmentally-Sensitive Areas (ESA)
An area protected for environmental reasons, entry into and/or play from which is prohibited.  It may be defined as ground under repair, penalty area or out of bounds. The relief procedure is described in local rules.
see the picture…

 

Extreme Rough
Areas on the golf course covered with high grass (unmowed or cut to the length longer than 5 – 6 inches), weeds, underbrush or/and other foliage, which make it likely the ball will be lost.
see the picture …

 

Fairway
The closely mown area that is the main intended pathway of play from the tee to the green. It is the target for shots on all holes² other than par 3s. Fairways are mowed at heights between 0.5 and 1 inch.
see the picture …

 

First Cut
The rough directly bordering the fairway that is cut higher than the fairway but lower than the regular rough. Other name: Inna nazwa: Intermediate Rough.

 

Flagstick
A stick with a flag on it placed on putting green to mark the location of the hole¹.
see the picture…

 

Fringe
A collar or apron.
see the picture…

 

Front Nine
The first 9 holes² (no 1 – 9) of an 18 hole golf course. Other names: Outward Nine, Out.

 

Grain
The direction in which the individual blades of grass is growing / laying on a green.

 

Green
An area on a golf course covered with very short grass containing the hole¹ into which the ball must be played.
see the picture…

 

Ground Under Repair (GUR)
A part of the golf course so declared in local rules or marked by blue stakes and/or line on the ground. The Committee may make a local rule prohibiting play from ground under repair. Stakes and lines are inside the ground under repair. A ball is in ground under repair when it lies in or any part of it touches the ground under repair.
see the picture…

 

Hardpan
An area of the golf course (not bunker or penalty area) on which no grass is growing.

 

Hazard
(before 1st January 2019) Any bunker or water hazard.

 

Hole¹
A hole (cup) in the ground on each green, into which player is trying to place his golf ball. The hole¹ is 4¼ inches (108 mm) in diameter and at least 4 inches (101,6 mm) deep.
see the picture…

 

Hole²
An unit of a golf course. It always begins at the teeing ground and ends at the green. Other parts of a hole are: the fairway, the rough and penalty areas.
see the picture…

 

Hole Out
To complete a hole² by placing the golf ball into the hole¹. The final stroke on a given hole².

 

Immovable obstruction
An artificial object on the course that cannot readily be moved.

 

Intermediate Rough see First Cut

 

Lateral Water Hazard
(before 1st January 2019) A water hazard that is alongside or perpendicular to the line of play. Lateral water hazards are defined by the use of red stakes or red lines. Stakes and lines are part of the hazard. A ball is in the hazard when it lies within the hazard or when any part of it touches the hazard. See also Penalty Area.
see the picture …

 

OB see Out of Bounds

 

Out of Bounds (OB)
The area outside of the golf course limits or designated by the committee, in which play is not allowed. Usually defined by a fences, roads, paths or white stakes and lines. Boundary elements, stakes and lines are out of bounds. A ball is out of bounds when all of it lies out of bounds.
see the picture …

 

Penalty Area (PA)
(since 1st January 2019) Any body of water on the course, marked or not, (e.g. sea, lake, pond, river, ditch, surface drainage ditch, open watercourse) and any other part of the course defined by the Committee. There are two different types of penalty areas: yellow and red. These areas are marked with red or yellow stakes (and/or lines) respectively. Stakes and lines are part of the area. A ball is in the penalty area if it lies within the area or when any part of it touches the area.
see the picture of penalty area (yellow) …
see the picture of lateral penalty area (red) …

 

Pin see Flagstick

 

Pitchfork
A small fork-like tool used for repairing the putting green surface. Other name: Ballmark Repair Tool.

 

Pitch Mark see Ball Mark

 

Putting Green see Green

 

Rough
Areas that frames the fairway or green and feature higher grass or naturally growing vegetation. It is designed to be punitive to players who miss the fairway or the green. The rough can vary in height and thickness depending on its location on the course, but usually is mowed at height between 1 and 4 inches.
see the picture …

 

Sand Trap
The casual name of a bunker.

 

Slope
An inclined surface of the ground, especially on a green.

 

Stakes
Colored posts that define and mark the boundaries of designated areas of the golf course. The color of stake indicates the type of area:
White stakes indicate out of bounds.
Yellow stakes indicate a yellow penalty area.
Red stakes indicate a red penalty area.
Blue stakes indicate a ground under repair.
Green stakes indicate an environmentally sensitive area.
Blue stakes with Green tops indicate an environmentally sensitive area that is treated as ground under repair with mandatory relief.
Red stakes with Green tops indicate an environmentally sensitive area that is treated as red penalty area with mandatory relief.

 

Tee¹
A little wooden or plastic peg on which a golf ball is placed prior to hitting the first shot (tee shot) on a hole.
see the picture…

 

Tee²
The casual name of the area at the start of each hole² from which golfers hit the first shot (tee shot) on the hole: teeing ground or tee box.

 

Tee box
An area where one or several sets of tee markers are grouped together.
see the picture…

 

Tee marker
The object that indicates the forward boundary of the teeing ground. Tee markers are usually made of wood or plastic and they are colored, but there is no standard for colors.
see the picture…

 

Tee time
The particular time at which a group of golfers are scheduled to start their round of golf.

 

Teeing ground
The place from which golfer plays the first stroke on each hole². It is a rectangular area two club-lengths in depth, the front and the sides of which are defined by the outside limits of two tee markers.
see the picture…

 

Waste Bunker
An unmaintained, natural or sandy area on a golf course. It is not covered with grass, but some vegetation, rocks or pebbles might exist in it. Waste bunkers are not penalty areas under the Rules of Golf and they are usually specified in local rules. Other name: Waste Area.

 

Water Hazard
(before 1st January 2019) Any sea, lake, pond, river, ditch, surface drainage ditch or other open water course (whether or not containing water) and anything of a similar nature on the course. Water hazards (other than lateral water hazard) are defined by the use of yellow stakes or yellow lines. Stakes and lines are part of the hazard. A ball is in the hazard when it lies within the hazard or when any part of it touches the hazard. See also Penalty Area.
see the picture…

 

 

Shots and ball flight

 

Address
The golfer’s stance, when he is ready to play a stroke in position to start his swing – the golfer is standing over the ball and the sole of the club is touching the ground.

 

Air shot
An attempt to strike the ball where the club completely misses (has no contact) the ball. The air shot is counted as a stroke. Other name: whiff.

 

Approach, Approach Shot
A player’s first attempt to hit the ball onto the green. Generally an approach is the relatively short shot a golfer plays into the green from a distance requiring a full swing. If a golfer is close to the green (closer than 50-60 yards) the approach shot is termed rather a chip shot or a pitch shot.

 

Backspin
The backward rotation of a golf ball in flight around a horizontal axis. The more lofted clubs impart more backspin to the ball.
see the picture …

 

Banana ball
A slang term for a severe slice.

 

Break
The curve of a putt due to the undulations of the green surface (slope), grain or/and wind.

 

Carry
The distance the ball travels through the air from the point of contact with the club to the point at which it first touches the ground. Total shot length is the sum of carry and roll².
see the picture …

 

Chip, Chip Shot
A shot played from close to the green, usually within a few yards of the putting surface. The ball makes a shallow flight, then hitting the ground and rolling forward toward the hole¹. Usually played with a wedge, but some golfers hit chip shots using a short iron (7 or 8).

 

Cut shot
A fully controlled fade shot.

 

Draw, Draw shot
A shot intentionally played with a slight, controlled curving motion of a ball from outside-to-in, i.e. from right to left for a right handed player or left to right for a left-handed player. Such flight path of a ball is achieved with anticlockwise sidespin. The draw is the opposite of a fade shot. An overdone or uncontrolled draw becomes a hook.
see the picture …

 

Drive
A long-distance shot played from the tee box (tee shot), intended to move the ball a great distance down the fairway towards the green. Usually it is hit with a driver. If the player decides to play a lay-up shot the drive is hit with a shorter club (wood or iron).

 

Drop
The action of dropping the ball onto the ground by standing player from arm’s length at shoulder height. It is taken under the Rules after:
the ball is lost or
the ball is stricken into penalty area or
the ball is stricken into an unplayable lie or
player takes relief (e.g. from casual water, ground under repair etc.)

 

Fade, Fade shot
A shot intentionally played with a slight, controlled curving motion of a ball from inside-to-out, i.e. from left to right for a right handed player or right to left for a left-handed player. Such flight path of a ball is achieved with clockwise sidespin. The fade is the opposite of a draw shot. An overdone or uncontrolled fade becomes a slice. Other name: cut shot.
see the picture …

 

Hole In One
To hit the ball from the tee into the hole¹ with the first stroke of the ball.

 

Hook
Most commonly it is a misplayed shot when the golf ball curves significantly from outside-to-in, i.e. from right to left for a right handed player or left to right for a left-handed player. It can be also played intentionally by inducing anticlockwise sidespin onto the ball. The hook is the opposite of a slice shot and has similar shaping to draw shot, but it is more severe.
see the picture …

 

Lay up
A stroke played conservatively with a shorter club than is possible in order to position the ball in a certain spot. Lay up shot is done to get a more comfortable next stroke (lay up by choice) or to avoid a penalty areas (forced lay up).

 

Lip Out
A missed putt or approach when the ball hits the edge of the hole², runs around the rim and spins out instead of falling in.

 

Pin High
An approach shot that leaves the ball level with the hole². The ball travels the correct distance, but it stops off to one side or the other: on or near the green. Other name: hole high.
see the picture …

 

Pitch, Pitch Shot
A short shot (50 yards or less) into the green that makes the ball fly high with steep ascent, steep descent and very little roll. The ball stops more or less where it hits the ground. Usually played with a highly lofted club (wedge).

 

Pull, Pull Shot
A shot when the ball starts in an inward direction (left for a right handed player, right for a left handed player) and continues flight in a straight path. The pull is the opposite of a push shot.
see the picture …

 

Push, Push Shot
A shot when the ball starts in an outward direction (right for a right handed player, left for a left handed player) and continues flight in a straight path. The push is the opposite of a pull shot.
see the picture …

 

Putt
A light golf stroke made on the green in an effort to place the ball into the hole¹.

 

Roll²
The distance the ball travels (rolls or bounces) from the point of hitting the ground first time to its final resting spot. Total shot length is the sum of carry and roll.
see the picture …

 

Shank
A misplayed shot when the ball is not hit accurately by the face. Most often, the ball is contacted by the hosel and thus flies at a sharp angle to the right of the intended direction for a right handed player and to the left for a left handed player. Usually the ball travels only a short distance. Other name: hosel rocket.
see the picture …

 

Sidespin
The rotation of a golf ball around a vertical axis that makes a ball curve in flight.
see the picture …

 

Slice
Most commonly it is a misplayed shot when the golf ball curves significantly from inside-to-out, i.e. from left to right for a right handed player or right to left for a left-handed player. It can be also played intentionally by inducing clockwise sidespin onto the ball. The slice is the opposite of a hook shot and has similar shaping to fade shot, but it is more severe.
see the picture …

 

Spin
Rotation of the golf ball around the resulting rotational axis of the golf ball in flight.

 

Tee Off
The first stroke (tee shot) of a round of golf.

 

Tee Shot
The first stroke on the hole² played from the teeing ground. It may be played with any club.

 

Trajectory
The shape (height and angle) of the path that the ball travels after impact.

 

Up and down
The situation when a player holes out in two strokes starting from off the green. The first stroke (pitch, chip or bunker shot) gets the ball up onto the green and the second stroke gets it down into the cup.

 

Whiff see Air shot

 

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update: December 2017

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